An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery, 1799

Identifier
New York State Archives, NYSA_13036-78_L1799_Ch062
Description
New York laws of 1799, an act for the gradual abolition of slavery, specifying that children born to a slave mother after July 4, 1799 were declared legally free--but not until male children had turned 28, and females 25. Slaves born before that date remained in servitude, although they were redefined as indentured servants.
New York State Archives, New York (State). Dept. of State. Bureau of Miscellaneous Records. Enrolled acts of the State Legislature. Series 13036-78, Laws of 1799, Chapter 62.
Learning Activities

An Act Relative to Slaves and Servants, 1817

Identifier
New York State Archives, NYSA_13036-78_L1817_Ch137_p2
Description
An act relative to slaves and servants, 1817, containing a provision freeing every child born of a slave in the state who was born after July 4, 1799. This was, however, a gradual process. All such children were still bound to the master of their mother until age 28 (for males) or age 25 (for females). Every child born of a slave after this act was passed was also legally owned by the mother's master until age 21. According to the terms of the law, all slaves were to be free by 1827.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Dept. of State. Bureau of Miscellaneous Records. Enrolled acts of the State Legislature. Series 13036-78. Laws of 1817, Chapter 137, Section 4.
Learning Activities

Advertisement of a Runaway Slave, 1823

Identifier
New York State Archives, NYSA_A3045-78_A3625
Description
A newspaper advertisement for a runaway slave, printed in the Ulster Plebian, Kingston, New York, September 17, 1823.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Department of Education. Division of Visual Instruction. Instructional lantern slides, ca. 1856-1939. Series A3045-78, No. A3625.
Learning Activities

A list of the number of men necessary for West Point, circa 1780

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Men_Necessary
Description
A list of the number of men necessary to “man the works” at West Point found on British Major John André at the time of his capture by the Americans, during the American Revolution. The document is signed “Villefranche, engineer”. Jean-Louis Ambroise de Genton, Chevalier de Villefranche, was the chief engineer at West Point starting in 1780. Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold. Arnold was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Major tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Men Necessary.
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A map of the country in which the army under Lt. General Burgoyne acted in the campaign of 1777

Identifier
NYSA_14297-87_3621
Description
This map traces the route of Lt. General Burgoyne from his entry into the country until his defeat in Saratoga. Saratoga is rendered in the lower left of the map. The mapmaker is Mr. Medcalfe and the engraver is William Faden. This photograph was taken at the 151st anniversary of the first battle at Saratoga, usually referred to as the Battle at Freeman's Farm. This battle, and the following battle three weeks later, is thought to be the turning point of the war. This image was created to record the historic site activities of the New York State Conservation Department.
New York State Archives, New York (State). Conservation Dept. Photographic prints and negatives, [ca. 1904-1949], 14297-87_3621
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Learning Activities

Artillery Orders Found on John Andre

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Artillery_Order
Description
Artillery orders found on British Major John André at the time of his capture by the Americans, during the American Revolution. The document describes what “takes place in case of an alarm” at the fort at West Point. This document is signed “S. BAUMAN, Major Comm’t Artillery”. Sebastian Bauman was the Artillery Commander at West Point.;Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold. Arnold was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780.;André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780.;Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives
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Learning Activities

Benedict Arnold Letter Offering West Point for 20,000 Pounds

Identifier
Clements_GoldStar_002
Description
Letter written in code and translated in which Benedict Arnold describes his terms ($20,000) for becoming a traitor and revealing vital information about troops and equipment at West Point, July 15, 1780.
Clements Library
Learning Activities

Benedict Arnold to Colonel Varick about Rewarding for Merit, October 30, 1776

Description
Letter from Benedict Arnold to Colonel Varick about rewarding for merit. Written from Ticonderoga October 30, 1776.
USMA_Arnold_Varick
Learning Activities

Details on West Point's Redoubts, circa 1780

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Construction
Description
Two pages of details on West Point’s redoubts found on British Major John André at the time of his capture by the Americans, during the American Revolution. This document is in Benedict Arnold’s handwriting. Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold, who was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801. Page two of two of details on West Point’s redoubts found on British Major John André at the time of his capture by the Americans, during the American Revolution. This document is in Benedict Arnold’s handwriting. Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold, who was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Construction 1.
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Learning Activities

Estimation of Forces at West Point, 1780

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Forces
Description
Estimation of forces at West Point, and its dependencies, found on British Major John André at the time of his capture by the Americans, during the American Revolution. The quantity of soldiers at the Americans' outpost was a piece of intelligence that would have been extremely useful to the British. Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold, who was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Forces.
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Learning Activities

Letter from Killis to Mr. James Carpenter, Goshen, June 17, 1816

Identifier
Other, NYSHA_SC_Carpenter_B102_F19
Description
Letter from Killis to Mr. James Carpenter, Goshen, June 17 1816.
Learning Activities

Letter written by Joshua Smith, 1780

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Smith_Letter
Description
A letter written by Joshua Hett Smith to his brother, Thomas, while the former was imprisoned at the Robinson House Headquarters. Smith had been charged by American Major General Benedict Arnold with escorting British Major John André over American lines during the American Revolution. Smith was captured for his possible knowledge of Arnold’s plan of treason. In the letter Smith mentions “a British uniform Coat”, which had belonged to Major André, but was exchanged for civilian clothing. André was working with Arnold, who was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Smith Letter.
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Learning Activities

Manumission of Mink, April 28, 1795

Identifier
Other, Schodack_Manumission_Mink
Description
Manumission of Mink, April 28, 1795. White New Yorkers were divided over slavery even after the close of the American Revolution. They remained divided over the issue of equal rights for blacks far longer. While gradual emancipation proceeded according to state laws passed in 1799 and 1817, other laws and the 1821 state constitution barred large numbers of free blacks from voting. New York's black abolitionists had many allies in the fight to end slavery nationwide, but found fewer supporters in their quest for equal voting rights in their own state. Following the Civil War, many white New Yorkers resisted the national movement for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing equal voting rights for all men. As late as 1869, a majority of the state's voters cast ballots in favor of retaining property qualifications that kept New York's polls closed to many blacks. African American men did not obtain equal voting rights in New York until ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870.
Learning Activities

Map of Bemis Heights and Saratoga Battlefield

Identifier
NYSA_A3045-78_1572
Description
Map of Battle of Bemis Heights and at Saratoga in October 1777, one of the colonists' first major victories of the American Revolution. Prepared by the Division of Visual Instruction. (1912)
New York State Archives. New York (State). Department of Education, Division of Visual Instruction. Instructional glass lantern slides, ca. 1856-1939. Series A3045-78, No. 1572.
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Learning Activities

Map of Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery

Identifier
NYSA_A3045-78_Dn_Hu724
Description
Map of the Hudson River from Fort Montgomery to Croton Bay and some surrounding land in parts of Orange, Rockland, and Westchester Counties, showing some water and geographic features, railroads, and place names. Map of Hudson River and Vicinity from Fort Montgomery to Croton Bay. Map is from Ernest Ingersoll's Illustrated Guide to the Hudson River and Catskill Mountains, Rand McNally & Co., publishers.
New York State Archives. Education Dept. Division of Visual Instruction. Instructional lantern slides, 1911-1925, A3045-78, DnHu724
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Learning Activities

Map of Hudson River Sites Related to John Andre

Identifier
NYSA_A3045-78_D47_Hu
Description
Map of the Hudson River from Croton Point to Peekskill in New York. The map includes towns, mountains, rivers, lakes, railroads, ferry routes and important sites such as estates and locations related to Major John Andre from the Revolutionary War.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Education Dept. Division of Visual Instruction. Instructional glass lantern slides, ca. 1856-1939. Series A3045-78, no. D47_Hu.
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Learning Activities

Map of the New York Frontier in the Revolution

Identifier
NYSA_A3045-78_730
Description
Map of the New York Frontier in the Revolution; Sullivan's Expedition. The map shows the area where colonial Generals John Sullivan and James Clinton campaigned against Loyalists and Iroquois tribes allied with the British. Prepared by the Division of Visual Instruction, after one in F. W. Halsey's Old New York Frontier. (1912)
New York State Archives. New York (State). Department of Education, Division of Visual Instruction. Instructional glass lantern slides, ca. 1856-1939. Series A3045-78, No. 730.
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Learning Activities

Overseer of the Poor Record, Town of Orange, Rockland County, April 13, 1803

Identifier
New York State Archives, NYSA_B1718-00_01
Description
Overseer of the Poor Record for Support of Children of Slaves, Town of Orange, Rockland County, April 13, 1803.
Learning Activities

Pass Found on Major John Andre

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Anderson_Pass
Description
A pass found on British Major John André at the time of his capture by the Americans, during the American Revolution. The pass is for Mr. John Anderson (André’s alias) to pass to White Plains “or below if he chuses He being on Public Business by my Direction”. The pass is signed by American Major General Benedict Arnold, who Major André was working with. Arnold was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Anderson Pass Front.
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Learning Activities

Pass for Joshua Smith, 1780

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Smith_Pass2
Description
A pass for Joshua Smith to cross Dobbs Ferry, and return, from American Major General Benedict Arnold. The pass is signed by Arnold. Smith was later charged by Arnold to escort British Major John André back across American lines. Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold, who was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Smith Pass 2 Front.
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Learning Activities

Pass for Joshua Smith, 1780, side 1 of 2

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Smith_ Pass1
Description
Side one of two of a pass for Joshua Hett Smith to carry private letters for gentlemen in New York. Smith was later charged by American Major General Benedict Arnold to escort British Major John André across American lines. The pass is signed by Arnold. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801. The pass reads “Permission is granted to Joshua Smith, Esq., to go to Dobbs’s Ferry with three Men and a Boy with a Flag to carry some Letters of a private Nature for Gentlemen in New York, and to Return immediately. "B. ARNOLD, M. Gen’l. "N.B. – He has permission to go at such hours and times as the tide and his business suits.” Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold. Major Arnold was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As Major André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Major Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Smith Pass 1.
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Learning Activities

Pass for Joshua Smith and John Anderson, 1780

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Smith_Anderson_Pass
Description
A pass for Joshua Smith and John Anderson to cross at Kings Ferry found on British Major John André at the time of his capture by the Americans, during the American Revolution. The pass was written from the head-quarters at Robinson House, and signed by Benedict Arnold. The pass reads "Permission is given to Joshua Smith, Esquire, a gentleman, Mr. John Anderson, who is with him, and his two servants, to pass and repass the guards near King’s Ferry at all times.” Joshua Hett Smith was charged by Benedict Arnold to escort Major André across American lines. Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold, who was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Smith Anderson Pass.
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Learning Activities

Pass for Joshua Smith to White Plains, 1780

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Smith_Pass3
Description
A pass for Joshua Smith to White Plains and back, from American Major General Benedict Arnold. Smith was later charged by Arnold to escort British Major John André back across American lines. Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold, who was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As Major André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Major Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795: Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Smith Pass 3 Front.
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Learning Activities

Return of Ordnance for West Point, 1780

Identifier
NYSA_A4681-99_Return_of_Ordnance
Description
Return of Ordnance for West Point and its dependencies found on British Major John André at the time of his capture by the Americans, during the American Revolution. The document is signed “S. Bauman, Major Commandant of Artillery”. Sebastian Bauman was the Artillery Commander at West Point. Major André was working with American Major General Benedict Arnold, who was attempting to help the British capture the fort at West Point. As Major André was heading towards the British lines with documents given to him by Major Arnold tucked in his boot, he was captured, near Tarrytown, on September 23, 1780. André was hanged as a spy, at Tappan on October 2, 1780. Benedict Arnold escaped to New York City, eventually commanding British troops in the American Revolution. He died in exile in London, on June 14, 1801.
New York State Archives. New York (State). Governor (1777-1795 : Clinton). Papers found on British spy Major Andre ("Andre Papers"), 1780. Series A4681-99, Return of Ordinance.
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Learning Activities

Runaway Slave Broadside for Killis, January 5, 1807

Identifier
Other, NYSHA_SC_Carpenter_Reward
Description
Broadside for Killis, January 5, 1807.
Learning Activities

Treason of the Blackest Dye

Description
Diary of Samuel Frost, American Revolution, Benedict Arnold's Treason, n.d.
United States Military Academy Other, USMA_Frost_Diary_Second
Learning Activities

Will of Rachel Bogardus, October 2, 1781

Identifier
Other, NYSHA_SC_BB_BogardusWill
Description
Will of Rachel Bogardus, October 2, 1781.
Learning Activities